Re: Gwałt ścigany z urzędu
National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Special Report on the Extent, Nature, and Consequences
of Rape Victimization: Findings from the National Violence against Women
Survey (NVAWS; Tjaden and ἀ oennes 2006) reported that 17.6% of surveyed women and
3% of surveyed men had been raped at some time in their lives. Rape was defined as an
act that includes attempted or completed vaginal, oral, or anal penetration. In the United
States, the prevalence of rape is equivalent to one of every six women being raped and 1 of
every 33 men. Because some victims were raped more than once, the NVAWS estimated
that 17.7 million women and 2.8 million men were forcibly raped at some time in there
lives with over three hundred thousand women and over ninety-two thousand men forcibly
raped in the year prior to the survey (Tjaden and ἀ oennes 2006). ἀ e Federal Bureau
of Investigation (FBI, 2004) reports in its “Crime in the United States” or Uniform Crime
Report (UCR) publication that 94,635 forcible rapes were reported to the police at a rate of
32.2 crimes per 100,000 residents (2004). ἀ ese statistics only reflect sexual assault cases
that were reported to the police and are believed to represent significantly fewer than the
actual sexual assaults that occur in this country.
It is helpful to compare reported statistics with past years’ statistics. ἀ ere were
93,103 forcible rapes reported in the FBI Uniform Crime Report in 1998, which represented
decreased reporting for the sixth consecutive year. ἀ ere were 97,464 forcible rapes
reported to law enforcement agencies in 1995 and 96,122 in 1997. ἀ e 2004 report indicates
a slight increase in reporting.
In 2007 another federal study by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) published the
following statistics regarding the occurrence of sexual violence among children, adolescents,
and adults in the United States:
Approximately 2 out of 1,000 children were confirmed by child protective services
as having experienced sexual assault in 2003 (Department of Health and Human
Approximately 9% of high school students reported that they experienced forced
sexual intercourse (CDC 2004).
Female high school students are more likely to report sexual assault than male students
(11.9 vs. 6.1%) (CDC 2004).
Among high school youth, 12.3% of black students, 10.4% of Hispanic students, and
7.3% of white students have reported a history of forced sexual intercourse (CDC 2004).
Among college students in the United States, between 20 and 25% of women reported
experiencing completed or attempted rape (Fisher, Cullen, and Turner, 1999).
More than three hundred thousand women (0.3%) and over ninety thousand men
(0.1%) reported being raped in the previous 12 months (Tjaden and ἀ oennes 1999).
One in six women (17%) and 1 in 33 men (3%) reported experiencing an attempted or
completed rape at some time in their lives.
People usually are raped more than once. Among adults who reported being raped,
women experienced 2.9 rapes and men experienced 1.2 rapes in the previous year.
ἀ ere are problems in determining the statistics in rape. First, the manner in which
rape is defined affects incidence and prevalence rates. Incidence, which refers to the number
of behaviors of a particular type, may, at the present time, be more reliable than prevalence,
which refers to the proportion of people who engage in a particular behavior.
Sexual abuse is an under-reported crime and victims of all ages do not readily identify
themselves. ἀ e extent of nondisclosure ranges from over 50% (Burgess and Holmstrom
1986) to as high as 68% (Bureau of Justice statistics 1996). Koss (1993), Resnick and colleagues
(1996), and Acierno, Resnick, and Kilpatrick (1997) have identified several reasons
for nondisclosure, including (1) fear of retribution by an offender, especially if the assailant
is proximate or known to the victim; (2) fear of stigma attached to being a victim of rape;
(3) fear of being blamed; (4) history of negative outcomes following previous disclosure
(e.g., court involvement leading to acquittal); (5) lack of encouragement to discuss abuse;
and (6) fear of psychological consequences of disclosure (e.g., anxiety or depression upon
revisiting the event).
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