Nadmiar fluoru - fluorosis (mottled enamel)!!!
Q: Why is enamel fluorosis a concern?
A: In severe cases of enamel fluorosis, the appearance of the teeth is marred
by discoloration or brown markings. The enamel may be pitted, rough, and hard
to clean. In mild cases of fluorosis, the tiny white specks or streaks are
Q: How does a child get enamel fluorosis?
A: By swallowing too much fluoride for the child's size and weight during the
years of tooth development. This can happen in several different ways. First, a
child may take more of a fluoride supplement than the amount prescribed.
Second, the child may take a fluoride supplement when there is already an
optimal amount of fluoride in the drinking water. Third, some children simply
like the taste of fluoridated toothpaste. They may use too much toothpaste,
then swallow it instead of spitting it out.
Czerwinski E, Nowak J, Dabrowska D, Skolarczyk A, Kita B, Bone and Joint
Pathology in Fluoride-Exposed Workers, Archives of Environmental Health, 1988,
Clinical and radiological investigations were performed for 2,258 aluminum
workers exposed to fluoride for an average of 17.6 yr (standard deviation =
7.6). Changes in bone and joints were presented in detail in three groups: (1)
exposed up to 5 yr (135 cases), (2) exposed from 6-32 years (1,463 cases), and
(3) retired workers (660 cases). A semi-quantitative assessment of early
fluorosis was introduced. A 20.2% incidence of fluorosis was found, but
according to Roholm, only 1.05% was in stage I. The disease was mainly in the
pre-stages of O and OI [see note below]. A close relationship between the
occurence of fluorosis and the time and degree of fluoride exposure was found.
The difficulties in diagnosing skeletal fluorosis result from the questionable
sensitivity of the x-ray techniques and from the non-specificity of the
associated symptoms. A qualitative method to assess osteosclerosis and bone
structure alteration is needed.