7The quotation comes from Francis Meehan, U.S. ambassador to Poland from 1980
to 1982, in a conversation with the author in June 1990.
8Kuklinski revealed this date for the first time in an interview in October
1997, excerpts of which were broadcast on Polish radio in November 1997 on the
program "Trojka pod Ksiezycem," which I heard while riding to Warsaw's Okecie
airport after having attended a conference in Jachranka on "Poland 1980-1982:
Internal Crisis, International Dimensions," organized by the National Security
Archive, the Cold War International History Project, and the Institute of
Political Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
9These incidents, one in Washington and the other in Chicago, were described by
Andrzej Krajewski and Sylwia Wysocka in "Trojka pod Ksiezycem."
10His younger son, Boguslaw, an avid yachtsman, was lost at sea in early
January 1994 while sailing in the Gulf of Mexico. No trace of his body was
ever found. The elder son, Waldemar, was killed in an automobile accident
during the 4th of July weekend.
11"Wojna z narodem widziana od srodka," pp. 3-55.
12Weiser's first article was "Polish Officer Was U.S.'s Window on Soviet War
Plans," Washington Post 27 September 1992, pp. A1, A38, and the second was "A
Question of Loyalty," Washington Post Magazine, 13 December 1992, pp. 9-13, 24-
13Maciej Lukasiewicz, ed., Bohater czy zdrajca: Fakty i dokumenty sprawa
pulkownika Kuklinskiego (Warsaw: Most, 1992); Krzysztof Dubinski and Iwona
Jurczenko, Oko Pentagonu: Rzecz o pulkowniku Ryszardie Kuklinskim (Warsaw:
KMSO, 1995); and Bernard Nowak, ed., Pulkownik Kuklinski: Wywiady, Opinie,
Dokumenty (Lublin: Test, 1998). Although Kuklinski is still reluctant to be
interviewed, several lengthy interviews have appeared in recent years; see
especially the interview cited above, "Pulkownik Ryszard Kuklinski mowi," pp.
14The full text of the Court's verdict is reproduced in "Rewizje
nadzwyczajna," Rzeczpospolita (Warsaw), 7 April 1995, p. 17.
15"Komisja rozgrzesza autorow stanu wojennego: Wiekszosc rzadowa PSL-SLD
przeglosowala mniejszosc opozycyjna UW, KPN, UP," Rzeczpospolita (Warsaw), 14
February 1996, pp. 1-2. The measure was approved by the full Sejm several
months later. The parliament's action did not cover the separate charges
brought against Jaruzelski for his role in the bloody crackdown of December
1970. A trial resumed in mid-1998 of Jaruzelski and eleven other senior
officials charged with the massacres.
See "Proces-Grudzien '70, krotka: Rozpoczal sie proces oskarzonych ws.
Grudnia '70," Zycie Warszawy (Warsaw),
16 June 1998, p. 2.
16"Umorzono sledztwo przeciw plk. Kuklinskiemu," Rzeczpospolita (Warsaw), 23
September 1997, p. 1.
17Jerzy Sadecki, "Kuklinski na Wawelu: Honorowy
Obywatel Stolecznego Krolewskiego Miasta Krakowa," Rzeczpospolita (Warsaw), 29
April 1998, p. 2; and Jerzy
Sadecki, "Honorowe obywatelstwo dla Ryszarda Kuklinskiego: Zwykly zolnierz
Rzeczypospolitej," Rzeczpospolita (Warsaw), 30 April 1998, p. 2.
18"Juz nie chce stad wyjezdzac: Uratowal przed rozlewem krwi—oswiadczyl
premier," Rzeczpospolita (Warsaw), 28 April 1998, p. 2.
19Adam Michnik, "Pulapka politycznej beatyfikacji," Gazeta wyborcza (Warsaw),
10-11 May 1998, pp. 10-11.
20"Jaruzelski: Przyjazd Kuklinskiego nie budzi moich zastrzezen,"
Rzcezpospolita (Warsaw), 28 April 1998, p. 2.
21Centrum Badania Opinii Spolecznej, Opinie o pulkowniku Kuklinskim (Warsaw:
CBOS, May 1998), pp. 1-3.
22For the genesis and full text of Carter's message, see the reproduced entries
from the diary of Zbigniew Brzezinski, the national security adviser in the
Carter administration, in "White House Diary, 1980," Orbis, Vol. 32, No. 1
(Winter 1988), pp. 33-38. See also Zbigniew K. Brzezinski, Power and
Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser, 1977-1981, rev. ed. (New
York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1985), pp. 495-498; and Jimmy Carter,
Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President (New York: Viking, 1982), pp. 583-585.
23At the Warsaw Pact meeting on 5 December 1980, Brezhnev remarked that "the
situation with the lines of communication [in Poland], especially with the
railroads and harbors, deserves urgent attention. Poland would experience an
economic catastrophe if transportation facilities were paralyzed. This would
also be a great blow to the economic interests of other socialist states. Let
me reiterate: Under no circumstances can we tolerate it if the security
interests of the Warsaw Pact countries are endangered by difficulties with the
transportation system. An elaborate plan must be devised to use the [Polish]
army and security forces to assert control over the transportation facilities
and the main lines of communication [in Poland], and this plan must be
implemented. Even before martial law is declared, it would be worthwhile to
set up military command posts and to initiate military patrols along the
railroads." Quoted from "Stenografische Niederschrift des Treffens fuhrender
Reprasentanten der Teilnehmerstaaten des Warschauer Vertrages am 5. Dezember
1980 in Moskau," 5 December 1980 (Top Secret), in Stiftung Archiv der Parteien
und Massenorganisationen der DDR im Bundesarchiv (SAPMDB), Zentrales
Parteiarchiv (ZPA) der SED, (Berlin) J IV, 2/2 A-2368; reproduced in Michael
Kubina and Manfred Wilke, eds., "Hart und kompromisslos durchgreifen:" Die SED
contra Polen 1980/81 (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1994), p. 173.
24See, among many examples, "Unuberwindliche Barriere gegen imperialistischen
Feind," Neues Deutschland (East Berlin), 1 December 1980, p. 3; "Walesa uber
Zusammenarbeit mit KOR," Neues Deutschland (East Berlin), 27 November 1980, p.
5; Jan Lipavsky, "Konfrontace: Od naseho varsavskeho zpravodaje," Rude pravo
(Prague), 2 December 1980, p. 7; "V boji o socialisticky charakter obnovy
zeme," Rude pravo (Prague), 2 December 1980, p. 7; and "Strana se upevnuje v
akcji," Rude Pravo, 1 December 1980, p. 6.
25Ivanovskii was replaced as commander-in-chief of Soviet forces in East
Germany on 4 December 1980 by Army-Gen. Mikhail Zaitsev. Ivanovskii was then
appointed commander of the Belorussian Military District, the post that Zaitsev
had held. See "Verdienste um Bruderbund UdSSR-DDR gewurdigt: Herzliche
Begegnung mit Armeegeneral Iwanowski und Armeegeneral Saizew im Staatsrat,"
Neues Deutschland (East Berlin), 5 December 1980, pp. 1-2.
26The problems posed by cloud cover are noted in Robert M. Gates, From the
Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the
Cold War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), pp. 163 and 168. A Special
Analysis issued by the CIA on 24 December 1980 marked the first solid
determination that only three Soviet tank and mechanized divisions in the
western USSR were on full alert. See U.S. Central Intelligence Agency,
National Foreign Assessment Center, "Approaching the Brink: Moscow and the
Polish Crisis, November–December 1980," Intelligence Memorandum (Top Secret),
January 1981, pp. 2–5.
27See Brzezinski, "White House Diary, 1980," p. 45.
28Ibid., pp. 37-39.
29Ibid., pp. 40-41.
30The emphasis here is on the word "preparing." It is unclear whether Soviet
leaders were actually intending to bring troops into Poland, or were perhaps
simply using the preparations as a means of spurring the Polish authorities to
accelerate their plans for martial law. I will return briefly to this point
31See, e.g., "Einweisung," early December 1980 (Strictly Secret), in
Militarisches Zwischenarchiv in Potsdam (MZA-P), VA-01/40593, Bl. 16; no date
is marked on this document, but the content indicates that it was prepared on 1
or 2 December. See also "Erlauterungen," Memorandum No. A:265991 (Strictly
Secret), early December 1980, in MZA-P, VA-01/