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A 1990 study on the risk factors for recurrent acute otitis media and respiratory infection in infancy found that short durations of breastfeeding is a significant risk of recurrent middle ear infections.
Source: Alho, O., "Risk Factors for Recurrent Acute Otitis Media and Respiratory Infection in Infancy". INT J PED OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY 1990; 19:151-61
A 1989 study determined that male gender, sibling history and a lack of breastfeeding significantly increased the risk for acute otitis media.
Source: Teele, D.W., Apidemilogy of Otitis Media During the First Seven Years of Life in Greater Boston: A prospective, Cohort Study". J of INFEC DIS.1989.
A Swedish study done in 1994 found non-breastfed children ages 2, 6 and 10 months had significantly more episodes of inner ear infections than breastfed children of the same age.
Source: Aniansson, G et al. A prospective cohort study on breastfeeding and otitis media in Swedish Infants. Pediatr Infect Dis. J. 1994; 13; 183-88
Children less than 12 months of age had a lower incidence of acute diarrheal disease during the months they were being breastfed than children that were fed with formula during the same period.
Sources: Lerman,Y. et al. "Epidemiology of acute diarrheal diseases in children in a high standard of living settlement in Israel". Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994; 13(2);116-22.
Huffman, S. and C. Combest. Role of breastfeeding in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 1990; 8(3):68-81.
Victora, C,. et al., Infant feeding and deaths due to diarrhea: a case-control study, Am. J. Epid., 1989; 129(5)
n study of risk factors for primary invasion of haemophilus influenza, type B disease, breast feeding was protective of infants less than 6 months of age.
Sources: Cochi, S.L. "Primary Invasive Haemophilus Influenza Type B Disease, A Population Based Assessment of Risk Factors". Journal of Pediatrics 1986
Harabuchi, Y. et al. Human Milk secretory IgA antibody to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: possible protective effects against nasopharyngeal colonization. J. Pediatr. 1994; 124; 193-98 [Formula lacks specific secretory IgA antibody present in breastmilk, suggests a mechanism by which formula-fed infants have higher incidence of infection.]
A 1990 study found that the antibody levels of immunized infants were significantly higher in breastfed babied than in formula-fed babies. These findings are strong evidence that breastfeeding enhances the active humoral immune response in the first year of life.
Source: Papst, H.F. , Spady, D.W. "Effect of Breast Feeding on Antibody Response to Conjugate Vaccine". Lancet, 1990
The breast fed group had significantly higher antibody levels than two formula fed groups together. Breast fed infants thus showed better serum and secretory responses to perioral and parenteral vaccines than the formula fed, whether with a conventional or low-protein content. Van-Coric, M. "Antibody Responses to Parental & Oral Vaccines Where Impaired by Conventional and Low-Protein Formulas as Compared to Breast Feeding". Acta Paediatr Scand 1990; 79: 1137-42
Human milk can transfer specific or nonspecific immunities to the external mucosal surface of the intestine and possibly to the respiratory tract of the newborn. The acquisition of such passive immunity is particularly important in the early neonatal period when the immune system is immature. Chang, S.J. "Antimicrobial Proteins of Maternal and Cord Sera and Human Milk in Relation to Maternal Nutritional Status". A. M. J. CLIN NUTR, 1990.
Among babies born at more than 30 weeks gestation, confirmed necrotizing enternal colitis was rare in those whose diet included breast milk; it was 20 times more common in those fed formula only. Lucas, A., Cole, T.J., "Breast Milk and Neonatal Necrotizing Enteral Colitis". Lancet 1990; 336:1519-23
Mothers milk could play a role in the protection of newborns from Herpes Simplex virus II contamination. Lopez, I., "Neutralizing Activity Against Herpes Simplex Virus in Human Milk". Breast Feeding REV 1990; 11(2): 56-58
Breast feeding was associated with a lower incidence of RSV infection during the first year of life. Holberg,C.J., "Risk Factors for RSV Associated lower Respiratory Illnesses in the First Year of Life". AM J Epidemiol 1991; 133 (135-51)
The authors presented results found in infants with two or more episodes of acute chronic bronchitis. They found that approximately twice as many bottle fed infants presented with the problem as those who were breast fed. de Duran, C.M. "Cytologic Diagnosis of Milk Micro Aspiration". IMM ALLERGY PRACTICE 1991; xiii (10);402-5
There was a strong negative effect modification by breast feeding: relative odds of respiratory illness with maternal smoking were 7 times higher among children who were never breast fed then among those who were breastfed. Woodwar, A. "Acute Respiratory Illness in Adelaide Children: Breast Feeding Modifies the Effect of Passive Smoking". J Epidemiol in Comm Health 1990;44:224-30
Howie PW, et al. Protective effect of breastfeeding against infection. BMJ 300:11-16, 1990. [The added risk of formula-feeding can account for 7% of all infants hospitalized for respiratory infections.]
>Duffy LC, et al. The effects of infant feeding on rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis: a prospective study. Am J Pub Health 76:259-263, 1986. [In industrialized nations, formula-fed infants have a 3-4 fold risk of diarrheal illness. Moderate to severe rotavirus gastroenteritis is five times more common in formula-fed infants.]
ACTA PÆDIATRICA SCANDINAVIA, Volume 93 Number 2: Pages 154-156,
Protective effects of breastfeeding against urinary tract infection
Department of Clinical Immunology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden