Informacje ze stron La Leche Leagues dot. palenia tytoniu i karmienia
Today, most people are aware of the health risks associated with cigarette smoking, both for the smoker and those around them. Pregnancy is often a good incentive for a woman to cut down or quit entirely. If a mother smokes cigarettes, her baby can still enjoy the benefits of breastfeeding. But the more cigarettes a mother smokes, the greater the health risks for both her and her baby - whether he is breastfed or bottle-fed.
According to LLLI"s THE BREASTFEEDNG ANSWER BOOK, if the mother smokes fewer than twenty cigarettes a day, the risks to her baby from the nicotine in her milk are small. When a breastfeeding mother smokes more htan twenty to thirty cigarettes a day, the risks increases. Heavy smoking can reduce a mother"s milk supply and on rare occasions has caused symptoms in the baby sych as nausea, vomitting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea ( Vorherr 1974 ). By keeping smoking to a minimum, a mother can decrease the risk.
When a mother smokes a cigarette, the nicotine levels in her blood and milk first increase and then decrease over time. The half time of nicotine ( the amount of time it takes for half the nicotine to be eliminated from the body ) is 95 minutes. For this reason, a mother should avoid smoking just before and certainly during the feeding.
Maternal smoking has been linked to early weaning, lowered production, and inhibition of the milk ejection ( "let-down" ) reflex. Smoking also lowers prolactin levels in the blood. One study ( Hopkinson et al 1992 ) clearly suggests that cigarettes smoking significantly reduces breast milk production at two weeks postpartum from 514 millilitres per day in non-smokers to 406 millilitres per day in smoking mothers. Mothers who smoke also have slightly hogher metabolic rates and may be leaner than non-smoking mothers, therefore, caloric stores for lactation may be low nad mother may need to eat more.
Smoking has been linked to fussiness. In one study, 40 % of babies breastfed by smokers were rated as colicky ( two to three hours of "excessive" crying ) as compared with 26 % of babies breastfed by nonsmokers ( Matheson and Rivrud 1989 ). It"s important to note that this link between smoking and colic has also been found with artificially fed babies with one or more smokers in the home ( Lawrence p.519).
However the baby is fed, parents should avoid exposing him to second-hand smoking by smoking in another room or preferably outside the house. Breathing second-hand or "side-stream" smoke poses health risks. Researchers have documented the health hazards to children when one or both parents smoke. In one study (Colley and Corkhill 1974 ) researchers monitored resiratory health of 2205 babies and found significant correlation between parents" smoking habits and the incidence of pneumonia, bronchitis and SIDS during their babies" first year of life. Those increased risks are present for both breastfed nad bottle-fed infants.
Bottle-fed infants have a much higher incidence of respiratory illnesses than breastfed infants. a bottle-fed baby whose mother or other household members smoke would therefore be at even higher risk of these problems. Dr. Jack Newman states " The risks of not breastfeeding are greater to the baby than the risks of breastfeeding and smoking. The decision is up to the mother and I would encourage her to breastfeed" .
Sorry ze tylko po angielsku, nie mam sily na tlumaczenie, bo jestem wykonczona nocna praca przez weekend. Moze jutro