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Zydzi od dawna są w Afganistanie !

IP: *.cm-upc.chello.se 27.10.01, 14:36
Jew (Yahudi) Few speak hebrew (5); all speak Dari (I/E) and/or Pashto (l/

Several thousand living in Kabul, Qandahar, Herat, as merchants,. traders, and
moneylenders. Several hundred went to Israel, but most subsequently returned.
Evidence of early Jewish contacts (Ca. 5th. century A.D.) with Afghan area
recently discovered (Bruno, 1963; Gnoli, 1962; Rapp, 1965). Basic physical
type: Mediterranean.
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    • Gość: !!! Re: Zydzi od dawna są w Afganistanie ! IP: *.cm-upc.chello.se 27.10.01, 14:38
      www.afghanan.net/afghanistan/index.htm
    • Gość: ! Re: Zydzi od dawna są w Afganistanie ! IP: *.cm-upc.chello.se 27.10.01, 14:58
      Troche o poezji i tradycji

      The first woman known to compose poetry in both Arabic and Persian was Rabi’a
      Balkhi, whose brother ruled Balkh during the tenth century. She fell in love
      with a Turkish slave, and he gave her a -rose. Her brother discovered several
      poems Rabi’a had written to her lover. Angry, he threw her into a haniani
      (steam bath), and had her veins slashed. Before she bled to death, legend says,
      Rabi’a wrote the following poem in Persian on the wall of the hamam, with her
      own blood:



      I am caught in Love’s web so deceitful

      None of my endeavors turned fruitful.

      I knew not when I rode the high-blooded steed

      The harder I pulled its reins the less it would heed.

      Love is an ocean with such a vast space

      No wise man can swim it in any place.

      A true lover should be faithful till the end

      And face life’s reprobated trend.

      When you see things hideous, fancy them neat,

      Eat poison, but taste sugar sweet.

      (K. Habibi, 1967)
    • Gość: ! Re: Zydzi od dawna są w Afganistanie ! IP: *.cm-upc.chello.se 27.10.01, 15:07
      Quran Bible

      Adam* Adam

      Nuh* Noah

      Ibrahim* Abraham

      Ishak Isaac

      Musa* Moses

      Ya’kub Jacob

      Irmiya Jeremiah

      ‘Ayub Job

      Yusuf Joseph

      Yusha’ Joshua
      • Gość: ! Czarownice... IP: *.cm-upc.chello.se 27.10.01, 15:18
        Many examples of non-Islamic practices can be cited (I. A. Shah, 1928): black
        magic, shamanism, and types of voodoo (sticking sharp objects into dolls, for
        example) are practiced, and witches (kojtarha), usually old women past
        childbearing age, exist throughout the country, and are occasionally killed.
        The witch not only uses wax, clay, and other materials to represent the
        victims, but incorporates the victim’s hair, or fingernail- or toenail-parings
        into the effigy. Even dirt from under the nails can be used, and villagers have
        told me that they bury their shorn hair and parings in secret.

        Parents frighten small children by saying that a wicked witch named madar ‘ol
        will steal them away if they are disobedient.

        The practitioner of black magic (seher) relies on the assistance of arwa’-yi-
        khabisah or arwa’-yi-palid (unclean ‘spirits). Positive and negative charms and
        spells exist in the realm of religio-magic.

        When black magic exists in a village or camp, white magic must be on hand to
        fight the evil. Often the mullah (Islamic religious leader) will serve as a
        shaman to counter the black magic. In fact, he may know these better than he
        does formal Islamic rites. Charms and spells are usually referred to
        respectively as nun (Arabic for heavenly light; and nan (Arabic for fire, also
        associated with shaytan, Satan). Bullets which have wounded but not killed, for
        instance, are positive charms and have great prophylactic, protective powers,
        and Afghan warriors .pay high prices for them.

        Several supernatural creatures harass the Afghan. The jinn, indefinable
        spirits, try io possess the living; some are evil, some merely jokers, but a
        person possessed by a jinn must be exorcised, because jinn are considered to be
        the main cause of insanity. Impersonal spirits created from smokeless fires,
        jinn return to fire as man does to dust, and infest all Afghanistan, causing
        mischief, such as tripping people in the dark and causing disease. The jinn
        replaces the scientific "germ" for the non-literate Afghan.

        Arwa’, spirits or ghosts, tortured souls of the improperly-buried dead, or
        those cursed by Allah or man, can be visible or invisible, and take either
        human or non-human form. Pan are beautiful fairies, who fly from the Caucasus
        to steal bad children for slaves. Dehyu, bohyu, ugly giants (with horns, tails,
        and thick hides), protect the pan from the evil eyes of man. Savvid, in this
        sense referring to the souls of pious men, return to earth to warn evildoers to
        repent. They can take any shape. including human.

        A special group of individuals called malang wander about the countryside. They
        are holy men thought to be touched by the hand of Allah. Some go naked, moving
        with the season; others dress in women’s clothes; still others wear elaborate,
        often outlandish, concoctions of their own design. Usually Afghan, Iranian,
        Pakistani, or Indian Sufi Muslims, malang travel from place to place, fed,
        honored, and at times feared by the local population, or 4 least held in awe.
        Often, they spout unintelligible gibberish, words they claim to be from Allah
        or a local saint. At other times, they quote from the Qor’an, usually
        incorrectly. The malang seem to be decreasing in number as Afghan society
        becomes more mobile, and modern processes give wider latitude for dissidents to
        adjust to new occupational opportunities outside the village and nomadic camp.
        The malang visually symbolizes the smouldering ‘dissidence which often burns in
        individuals and which group action suppresses in the tightly ‘knit peasant-
        tribal society of Afghanistan.

        Since no one willingly leaves the protective matrix of the socio-economic
        relationships of kin and village, the malang must (in the Afghan view) have
        been touched by the hand of God, and, therefore, be tolerated. He is another
        example of the wonder and power of Allah. Sometimes a malang performs a local
        miracle and settles down in a specific village, often under a large tree. When
        he dies the villagers build a ziarat around his tomb, and he becomes their very
        own saint, a pin to intercede personally for them, thus bringing a more
        localized, personalized meaning to their religious lives.

        The traditionalists feed fuel to the peasant-tribal beliefs in predestination,
        aided and abetted by religious leaders on every level. Those at the bottom of
        the hierarchy, the village mullah, often non-literate farmers, often function
        as part time religious leaders. Technically, Islam has no organized clergy, and
        every man can be a mullah. Anyone can lead in prayer. But where two men exist,
        hierarchies rise, and so they did in Muslim countries. At times informal, but
        often formally associated with the power elite, ‘ulama (bodies of religious
        leaders) assisted the rulers of city-states, tribal groups, or empires to
        maintain control over the masses, and interpreted the law.

        Thus the essentially non-Islamic belief of the non-literate Muslim that Allah
        planned all in advance excuses tyrahny, and prepares men to accept whatever
        fate hands them.

    • Gość: Allah Re: Zydzi od dawna są w Afganistanie ! IP: *.cm-upc.chello.se 27.10.01, 22:13
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